T. J. Schulz
Maximum-likelihood estimation techniques are presented for the problem of forming object estimates from turbulence-degraded images when the point-spread functions are unknown. The inability of unconstrained maximum-likelihood methods to form meaningful estimates is acknowledged and iterative algorithms are derived for estimating the object using both a penalized maximum-likelihood method and a parameterization of the point-spread functions as phase errors distributed over an aperture.
Journal of the Optical Society of America A, vol. 10, pp. 1064-1073, 1993.